When it comes to advertising a brand, it is rather accompanied by several strategies and techniques via which the process of marketing takes place, in order to depict the image of that certain brand being introduced (IAB 2009). Research has defined this term as the mode of communiqué to existing or prospective customers in which a registrar is sponsoring his/her run-through; a product or a service (IAB 2009). Due to an increase in the technological advancements and social network sites, the information regarding the promotion of the brand is transmitted through websites, campaigns, flyers, blogs, leaflets, brochures, newspaper articles, twitter or Facebook etc. However, it is indeed considered illegitimate to advertise any brand without copyrights; heavy penalty is charged in that case (IAB 2009). Endorsement advertisement on the other hand is one of the modes of marketing used by the marketers in order to promote their product, where celebrity endorsement is most commonly implemented which will be discussed in detail in our study, below.
Celebrities are those particular figures or personalities that are quite renowned in view of the public because of their integrity or their charm and desirability (Zipporah and Mberia 2014). From extensive research conducted by Zipporah and Mberia (2014), it has been inferred that advertisement in which celebrity endorsement is applied does seem to have an impact on the community overall. Basically, advertising also known as publicizing a brand is a fundamental portion of the community and economic scheme for both the consumers as well as the industries (Zipporah and Mberia 2014, pp.179). Its main purpose is to distribute wisely organized messages in order to aim spectators consequently enabling promotion packages of services or products of majority of administrations.
Khatri (2006) have stated that celebrities often offer their names for a particular advertisement in motive of depicting sheer prominence of that brand towards the audience. Consumers seem to become engrossed in advertisement where celebrities are involved in promoting a product or service’s worth (Khatri 2006). Companies often use a few strategies when implementing celebrity endorsement, which are as follows:
- Declaration: Also known as testimonial, is used when the product has personally been used by the celebrity himself; the most example for instance is Aishwairya Rai in endorsing Lux and L’Oreal Paris.
- Endorsement: this is used when the celebrities offer their own names for a particular brand where their experience may not count for example Julia Roberts has been asked to endorse Lancôme Paris products.
(Julia Roberts – Lancome La Vie Est Belle Perfume 2015)
- Actor: Another type of promotion or advertising is the acting of a celebrity, s/he may be asked to simply present a brand as a part of charismatic portrayal instead of subjective endorsement.
- Spokesperson: This type basically signifies a specific brand over a protracted duration of period, frequently in duplication as well as television advertisements, along with individual presences (Khatri 2006, pp.27).
The reason why celebrity endorsement is implemented world-wide is because of its profitability and money-making reliability. It seems to appeal the consumers acting as spectators (Khatri 2006, pp.28).
Jane Gu (2006) explains that celebrity endorsement can be executed as both long-standing as well as temporary strategies. The difference between both is when a company uses a long-term strategy; a better quality product is manufactured, provided that the impact of distribution of data and internal relationship request both are resilient (Jane Gu 2006, pp.2).
Coming to the dispersion of information via social networking sites, they are considered very vital in the business of advertising. If a buyer has consumed some product or service, chances are that he can spread awareness to others via social networks; especially to those who are not well-aware of that product (Jane Gu 2006, pp.4).
Jane Gu (2006) has also quantified through her research that there are two types of buyers who are prompted by celebrity endorsement:
- Rational Buyers: these buyers are only concerned about the statistical features regarding the advertisement. Hence they purchase a product only if the appraisals of the product’s functionality as well as worth are extraordinary and valuable.
- Fan Buyers: whereas, these type of consumers are rather concerned with the emotional appeal of the product along with the informational features and build up a vital emotional association with the celebrity endorsing the brand (Jane Gu 2006, pp.5).
A few examples celebrity endorsement are as follows:
(Taylor Swift, Cover girl 2012,)
(L’Oreal Posters 2011)
From the advertisement of ‘Stop Hunger Now’, various popular actors as well as actresses have addressed about the issue at hand, in the simplest yet modest way possible, which makes the advertisement acknowledgeable.
Another research by Mukherjee (2009) has quantifies that experimental findings sustain the statement that celebrities seem to have an encouraging impact on both the product’s attitude as well as the brand. A significant characteristic on celebrity endorsement is its integrity, worth and reliability. The mechanisms of the integral process are associated with other behaviors of the personality and the dimension of the appearance which reproduce better characteristics yield earnest and constructive perspective of the personage in the minds of the buyers (Mukherjee 2009, pp. 22-23)
However, there has been some negative connotation to celebrity advertisement as well; not all endorsement advertisements are taken as positively, depending upon its nature and value. A very common example to such disapproval is Shahrukh Khan endorsing ‘Fair’n Lovely MEN’ advertisement, which was found offensive by many consumers as well as a few other celebrities (PinkVilla 2013). It has been turned down as one of the stereotypes; because having a darker skin colour should not be prejudiced over fairer skin. It is rather considered off-putting and conceited to create disparity between both colours; it is rather an act of racism which should be excavated immediately.
From the above study, it is derived that one of the key features of marketing is celebrity endorsement advertisement and it plays a major role in building up a product’s image, as long as that specific brand does not offend its consumers on the basis of discrimination.
IAB 2009, ‘Social Advertising Best Practices’, Journal of Interactive Advertising Bureau, Viewed May 6th 2015, <from http://www.iab.net/media/file/Social-Advertising-Best-Practices-0509.pdf>
Jane Gu, Z 2005, ‘Celebrity Endorsement Advertising and Product Adoption through Social Networks, Stern School of Business-New York University, pp.1-5, Viewed May 6th 2015, <http://bschool.nus.edu/Departments/Marketing/papers%20for%20seminars/jane%20paper.pdf>
Julia Roberts – Lancome La Vie Est Belle Perfume 2012, ‘Celebrity Fashionation’, Daisy Development, Viewed May 6th 2015, from <http://www.celebrityendorsementads.com/celebrity-endorsements/celebrities/julia-roberts/>
Khatri, P 2006, ‘Celebrity Endorsement: A strategic Promotion Perspective’, Journal of Apeejay School of Management, Dwarka, New Dehli, pp. 27-28, Viewed May 6th 2015, from <http://satishserial.com/issn0972-9348/finaljournal03.pdf>
Loreal Paris 2011, ‘Aishwarya Rai Loreal Leading Lady’, Viewed May 6th 2015, from <http://forum.xcitefun.net/aishwarya-rai-loreal-leading-lady-t66359.html>
Mukherjee, D 2009, ‘Impact of celebrity endorsement on brand image’, journal of Social Science Research Network Electronic Paper Collection, pp. 21-23, Viewed May 6th 2015, <http://usdrinc.com/downloads/Celebrity-Endorsements.pdf>
Perkins, M 2008, ‘Stop Hunger Now’, Viewed May 6th 2015, from <http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x2m532l_stop-hunger-now-celebrity-endorser-2008_news>
Pink Villa 2013, ‘SRK in trouble for endorsing a fairness cream-“Dark is Beautiful”, gains momentum’, Viewed May 6th 2015, from <http://www.pinkvilla.com/entertainment/discussion/srk-trouble-endorsing-fairness-cream-dark-beautiful-gains-momentum>
Taylor Swift, Cover girl 2012, ‘Celebrity Fashionation’ Daisy Development Viewed May 6th 2015, from http://www.celebrityendorsementads.com/celebrity-endorsements/celebrities/taylor-swift/>
Zipporah, M.M 2014, ‘the effects of celebrity endorsement in advertisements’, journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences’, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 179, Viewed May 6th 2015, from <http://hrmars.com/hrmars_papers/The_Effects_OF_Celebrity_Endorsement_in_Advertisements.pdf>